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Dealing with Testicular pain: Common Causes and Effective Treatment Options

Testicular pain

Testicular pain refers to any discomfort, ache, or sharp sensation experienced in one or both testicles, which are the male reproductive organs responsible for producing sperm and testosterone. Testicular pain can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by swelling, tenderness, or other symptoms.

Testicular pain can be classified into acute or chronic, depending on the duration of symptoms. Acute testicular pain refers to sudden onset pain that lasts for a relatively short period, often requiring immediate medical attention. Conditions such as testicular torsion (twisting of the spermatic cord), epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis), or testicular trauma commonly cause acute testicular pain.

Chronic testicular pain, on the other hand, refers to persistent or recurring pain that lasts for an extended period, typically more than three months. It can be caused by conditions like chronic epididymitis, testicular microlithiasis (presence of small calcifications in the testicles), varicocele (enlarged veins in the scrotum), or post-surgical complications.

It’s important to note that testicular pain should not be ignored, especially if it is severe, rapidly worsening, or accompanied by symptoms like fever, swelling, discharge, or blood in the urine.

Testicular Pain Causes

Testicular pain can have several causes, including:


Epididymitis is the inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube located at the back of the testicle. It is often caused by bacterial or viral infections, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or urinary tract infections (UTIs). Symptoms of epididymitis include testicular pain and swelling, discomfort during urination, and sometimes fever.


Orchitis is the inflammation of the testicle and is usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection. Common viral causes include mumps, while bacterial causes can be associated with urinary tract or sexually transmitted infections. Orchitis typically presents with testicular pain, swelling, tenderness, and occasionally fever.

Testicular Torsion

Testicular torsion occurs when the spermatic cord, which supplies blood to the testicle, twists, leading to a loss of blood flow. This is a medical emergency and requires immediate attention. Testicular torsion often causes sudden and severe testicular pain, swelling, and tenderness. It can occur at any age, but it is more common in adolescents.

Testicular Trauma

Direct trauma or injury to the testicles can cause pain. This can happen due to sports-related accidents, physical blows, or accidents. Testicular trauma can result in bruising, swelling, and sometimes a collection of blood known as a hematoma within the scrotum.


A varicocele is an enlargement of the veins within the scrotum, similar to varicose veins. It usually occurs on the left side and is more common in young men. While many varicoceles are asymptomatic, some individuals may experience a dull ache or discomfort in the testicle, especially after prolonged standing or physical exertion.

Inguinal Hernia

An inguinal hernia occurs when a part of the intestine protrudes through a weak spot in the abdominal wall, near the groin. In some cases, the hernia can cause pain or discomfort in the groin and testicle area. The pain may worsen with physical activity or straining.

Kidney Stones

Kidney stones cause referred pain that radiates from the back into the groin area and testicles. When a stone passes through the urinary tract, it can cause severe pain in the testicles, along with other symptoms such as urinary urgency, blood in the urine, or a burning sensation during urination.


Prostatitis is the inflammation of the prostate gland, which can cause pain in the groin area that may extend to the testicles. It can be caused by bacterial infection or non-infectious factors. Symptoms of prostatitis can include pain or discomfort during urination, frequent urination, and pain in the lower abdomen.

Testicular Pain Treatment

Here are some general treatment options for common causes of testicular pain:

Epididymitis or Orchitis:

  • Antibiotics: If the cause is bacterial, a course of antibiotics will be prescribed to treat the infection.
  • Pain Relief: Over-the-counter pain relievers like acetaminophen or NSAIDs can help alleviate pain and reduce inflammation.
  • Scrotal Support: Wearing supportive underwear or using a scrotal support can help relieve discomfort.

Testicular Torsion:

  • Emergency Surgery: Testicular torsion is a medical emergency and requires immediate surgical intervention to untwist the spermatic cord and restore blood flow to the testicle.

Testicular Trauma:

  • Rest and Ice: Applying ice packs wrapped in a cloth to the affected area can help reduce swelling and alleviate pain.
  • Pain Relief: Over-the-counter pain medications can be used to manage pain.


  • Supportive Measures: Wearing supportive underwear or a scrotal support can help relieve discomfort caused by varicoceles.
  • Surgical Intervention: In severe cases or if symptoms persist, surgical treatment may be recommended to repair or remove the varicocele.

Inguinal Hernia:

  • Surgery: Inguinal hernias often require surgical repair to prevent further complications and alleviate pain.

It’s important to follow your doctor’s recommendations for treating testicular pain, as untreated conditions can lead to complications such as infertility or loss of the affected testicle.


In conclusion, testicle pain can have various causes, and it’s important to seek medical attention if you experience severe or persistent pain. Some common causes of testicle pain include infections, trauma, hernias, testicular torsion, and testicular cancer. The treatment for testicle pain depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, pain relief medication, scrotal support, surgery, or other interventions. It’s important to work with a qualified healthcare provider to diagnose the cause of testicle pain and develop an effective treatment plan. For best treatment, do contact Dr. Saket Narnoli.